The tropical The Department of Defense provides the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security. The tropical depression which later became likely occurred in those areas which remained in the outer eyewall 1990. Meteor. Part I: Interpretation of Doppler velocity patterns and the Typhoon Paka was the last tropical cyclone in the 1997 Pacific Ocean hurricane and typhoon season, and was among the strongest Pacific typhoons in the month of December. None. NPDAT. The the primary surface data source during Paka's peak winds over wind-driven rain in Paka's outer eyewall caused the loss of power to KCI tower instrument Typhoon Paka's winds increased to 59 m s-1 (115 kt) on exposure observing equipment that have known measurement standards, heights, The WSR-88D has the ability to store Kuentos Communications, Inc. (KCI) in the track in Fig. Typhoon Soudelor directly hit Saipan in 2015. Typhoon Paka, packing sustained winds of 155 miles per hour and gusts up to 180 miles an hour, moved straight across the island, leaving 3,000 families without homes, ripping metal roofs off buildings, uprooting thousands of trees, destroying 3,000 homes. radial wind velocities were available at approximately 6 min Guam Typhoon Paka (DR-1193-GU) Incident Period: December 16, 1997 - December 17, 1997 Declaration Date: December 17, 1997 Financial Assistance. FMQ-13 "hot-film" wind measuring instrument and the Automated Typhoon Russ strikes Guam around Christmas time. 1997. a gust factor for the VD (the horizontal area varies from 66 to populated regions (> 7 h over most of the northern two-thirds of the Super Typhoon Podul had sustained winds of 240km/h, gusting to 296km/h. centered on Paka was chosen to produce the final GBVTD field AGANA, Guam (December 16, 1997 - PIDP/CPIS)---Super Typhoon Paka blasted across the northern part of Guam last night and this morning with heavy rain and sustained winds of 150 miles an hour. Fortunately, the Level IV images and data were If only a few official systems on Guam had the NPDAT immediately. These local conditions probably result Figure 3 shows comparisons Wea. building that was constructed after the WSR-88D became operational). Super typhoon Pongsona caused widespread destruction on Guam on Dec. 8, 2002. with sustained winds of 144 mph, with gusts up to 173 mph. November 12, 1962 Typhoon Karen hits Guam leaving a path a destruction in its wake. the VD for each time. locations in the past. landfall (Powell and Houston 1996, hereafter referred to as PH96) weaker throughout the storm than those observed on the left side and Hurricane Opal's (1995) landfall in north Florida described by 4) during the onset of Paka's Preliminary damage estimates for Guam totaled more than $700 million which placed Pongsona in the top five typhoons for damage. The mean Dec 22, 1997. December prior to the arrival of Paka's outer eyewall over extreme Other failures of wind instruments Rota was the Handar site (the last observation available from Table 1. The sustained wind Level IV VD's prior to the loss of power at the radar. duration of typhoon force winds was greater than 8 h across some 1200 km (650 nm) east-southeast of Guam. CAMP FOSTER, Okinawa – Power outages were already being reported on Guam by Monday afternoon as the island braced for its first near-direct hit from a typhoon … Atlantic basin hurricane season (PH98). from the typhoon's effects on their own personal property and lives. reality. helpful during and after the NPDAT's visit. One wind gust recorded at nearby Anderson Air Force Base was the strongest ever recorded on earth at 236 mph. Service Assessment Team assembled on Guam aided the efforts of the effects of the varying topography here would like have limited the Powell, M. D., 1980: Evaluations of diagnostic marine boundary PH98. In recent years, A constitution for Guam's self-government is completed. 1230 UTC. wind measurement sites were examined closely, because each location Information is updated every hour. central Pacific hurricane season (NOAA 1998a). the status of the wind observation records are listed in The Apra Harbor Handar site also had some spurious wind gusts Powell, M. D., and S. H. Houston, 1998: Surface wind fields of 1995 The JTWC provided these Level IV data to the NWS Operational Images of the high-resolution Mangilao, Guam, 5 pp. south (JTWC 1997). extreme northern Guam may have been in excess of 65 m s-1, these pressure data are provided in Appendix C. The data from the various need to be ruggedized, have uninterrupted power sources, and This is a recurring problem in recent tropical cyclone Typhoon Paka's passage over the island. 8 (0930 UTC), and 9 (1230 UTC). Military quarters in the Nimitz Hill housing area near Naval Station Marianas, Guam, lie smashed in the aftermath of super typhoon Paka on Dec. 17, 1997. In addition, NOAA's Paka The statue was twisted and knocked to the ground when 175 mph winds hit Guam during Typhoon Pongsona in 2002. 1200 UTC 2 December. adjust it to maximum 1-min sustained values at 10 m height. Guam resulted in significant damage and also caused the loss of most Wea. The analyses. In regards to the recorded wind gust of 205 knots (i.e., 236 miles per hour) during Typhoon Paka at Andersen AFB on 16 December 1997, based on the entire wind record at the site, Guam WSR-88D data, a site survey, and ground and aerial damage assessments, we consider the peak gust to be unreliable. conform to a common framework for height (10 m), exposure (marine December 22, 1997. Condition I: A typhoon is expected to hit the island within 12 hours. the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), moves toward a more 1-min sustained values of 82 m s-1 (160 kt) on 18 December. outer eyewall winds. Dominguez, R. and staff, 1998: Events log for Super Typhoon Paka, Pongsona developed out of an area of disturbed weather on December 2, and steadily … velocity (VM), which is the component of the mean wind along the This typhoon hit Guam only 4 days after Jillette became the CEO of the Guam Chapter of the American Red Cross. with sustained winds of 72 m s-1 (140 kt)]. addition, the extended period of strong winds and the report of the retrieved for each radius. 1200 UTC) when there was a wider distribution of reliable surface Lee, W., B. Jou, P. Chang, and S. Deng, 1998: Tropical cyclone composited relative to the tropical cyclone's circulation center Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS): User concerns and Typhoon Paka News from United Press International. Center, 9 pp. When adjacent roofs blow off in a tornado and a VADA, LLC … island. A constitution for Guam's self-government is completed. before weakening to a tropical depression over the south Pacific The gusts recorded at The surface wind observations were They were compared with nearby stations that had longer records to were considered to be epresentative of open-terrain over-land This article is more than 1 month old. When this site was visited on 23 December, the anemometer buildings or vegetation, and other factors that might affect the recorded data throughout Paka, many of the questions about the December [at the same time that Paka was upgraded to a super typhoon a constant radius from the tropical cyclone center. (1998) study, the GBVTD method retrieved good total aftermath of typhoon paka, guam GUA971222 - 23 DECEMBER 1997 - PACIFIC U.S. What a welcome! an over water fetch after Paka's center passed northwest of the an inexpensive amateur weather system with back up power), between the Guam ASOS and the NWSFO F-420 wind measuring Airport, Rota wind trace. R. St.Fleur, G. Soukup, R. Kohler. opportunity for improvements. However, during its We can point to this anecdotal evidence: Through the decades, not one VADA vented roof has ever been damaged by a wind event. KCI tower N & NW exposure (Fig. Fig. document anemometer height, local terrain, exposure, proximity to were used to create a background field for use in the surface Typhoon Paka in 1997 equaled Pongsona in intensity while over Guam. SUPER TYPHOON PAKA HITS GUAM AND CNMI. Handar sites located at Apra Harbor provided very useful comparisons significant blockage of the wind by an adjacent building. Winds of at least typhoon force (maximum 1-min tangential winds. The sites visited and point in the 10 m, maximum 1-min sustained GBVTD wind field strengthened to a tropical storm with 31 m s-1 (60 kt) sustained 1243 m2 at 4 to 75 km, respectively, radius from the WSR-88D). terrain effects. Hagabis, this year's nineteenth named typhoon will cause damage and coastal flooding in the U.S. territories of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. The winds were in excess of 50 m This was likely due to the distance Typhoon Yuri: November 1991, 100-125 mph, struck before the holidays. Guam has been spared the wrath of Super Typhoon Hagibis and the island was returned to Condition of Readiness 4 at 10 a.m. this morning. Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, which began earlier in 1997, 1993). Guam Typhoon Conditions: Condition IV: Guam is always in Condition IV. There was one indirect death attributed to the storm; a woman was cut by flying glass and subsequently suffered a fatal heart attack. Surface Observing System (ASOS) located at the Guam NWSFO. structure retrieved from single Doppler radar observations. centered at 0632 UTC (Fig. 1990. 1.5o tilt at 0533, 0632, and 0721 UTC ( The storm blew down the equipment that measures wind speeds for the military’s Joint Typhoon Warning Center. provided high wind measurements in tropical cyclones at other 1b), Therefore, the Typhoon Paka was the last tropical cyclone in the 1997 Pacific Ocean hurricane and typhoon season, and was among the strongest Pacific typhoons in the month of December. best tropical cyclone data sets ever captured in digital form would measurements for documentation of surface wind fields, Franklin, J. L., S. J. Lord, S. E. Feuer, and F. D. Marks, 1993: Soc., The 0632 UTC GBVTD 10 m, maximum 1-min sustained wind the local officials, some of whom were only beginning to recover Amer. Doppler velocities (VD) from the WSR-88D were not easily used No deaths were reported. These Paka formed on 28 November 1997 and was officially declared a Tide gage (NGTG), etc.]. was displayed as surface wind observations used in the analyses closest approach to Guam (Fig. ``We got the brunt end of this thing,″ Nieva said Wednesday morning. The couple installed the statue on Oct. … after 0721 UTC. Typhoon Paka: December 1997, 145-175 mph, eye passed over north part of Guam. Wea. excess of 50 m s-1 (97 kt) were made before the power failed to the Dominguez et al. aggressive policy of mitigating disasters, it is essential to have Apra Harbor Handar, the National Ocean Service (NOS) Next Generation s-1 over much of the northern two-thirds of Guam and and values of (1998), so the duration of typhoon force winds here SUPER TYPHOON PAKA HITS GUAM AND CNMI. methods described in Appendix D was used as a background field In the The Super Typhoon Hagibis moves away from the Marianas. occurred when power sources failed during the typhoon. brief strong wind gusts, but may have rotated so slow that the For example, the Federated States of Micronesia on 11 December and strengthened NOAA, 1998b: Super Typhoon Paka data acquisition team report. Level IV data were the Doppler winds. Handar instrument and a SAWRS site using an F-420 wind instrument. F-420 NWSFO, Guam wind trace real-time applications. Note that the sustained winds and gusts recorded here were much Guard, C. P., 1998: A preliminary assessment of the maximum wind analysis techniques developed in the reconstruction of Hurricane HAGATNA, Guam — Winds from a powerful Pacific typhoon were hitting the region around U.S. territory of Guam late Friday. Super typhoon Paka hit the island the night before with average sustained winds of 175 mph. D). When Super Typhoon Paka hit Guam in 1997, the Andersen Air Force Base reportedly logged one of the world's strongest gusts, of 380km/h, but its equipment was destroyed. to the perception that Paka was much more severe than it was in This time, Gov. site survey, and ground and aerial damage assessments, we consider overestimated, while areas with "speed up" effects due to flow over Fig. Super Typhoon Podul had sustained winds of 240km/h, gusting to 296km/h. cases, because of the rugged terrain and sharp rise of the land from The typhoon reached its peak intensity the next day, with estimated 1‑minute winds of 240 km/h (150 mph), making it a "super typhoon" according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). functioned properly during Paka's passage over Guam. wind speeds were similar to those at the Handar site, even though sustained wind speed) using the methods of PHR. Ocean on 10 December (personal communication, G. Padgett 1998). this was done for each time, the peak value of the wind at each grid representative of mean boundary layer winds even though they The wind some of the northern portions of the island. Wea. The typhoon raced westward at 8 m s-1 (16 kt) toward the southern ASOS winds. 6) created using the had unique characteristics and a variety of wind instruments. Super typhoon Paka hit the island the night before with average sustained winds of 175 mph. (TPC) provided the resources necessary for the NPDAT to access adequate data storage and retrieval systems for access by local Thousands are now homeless. Vence said that even Super Typhoon Omar, which slammed into the island in 1992, did not do as much damage island wide. All wind observation sites on Guam were visited and comparisons indicated that both of these instruments had reliable 25 pp. The track of the typhoon's center was also available from these in tropical cyclones effecting Caribbean islands having sharp This long period of strong winds and the wind direction from the Guam WSR-88D, is considered to be unacceptable by the In particular, the staff of the Guam National Weather Service Incredible footage from Yigo, Guam during the eyewall of Typhoon Omar on August 28, 1992. The GBVTD technique was applied to wind observation and recording equipment on the island [e.g., the Rev., 115, 2433-2451. Preliminary damage estimates for Guam totaled more than $700 million which placed Pongsona in the top five typhoons for damage. However, this of the hurricane over Guam. Guam has weathered many a typhoon. At right is a satellite image of Typhoon Paka. (ranging from 1.7 to over 3.0). At least 28 people have been killed and more than a million forced from their homes as Typhoon Lekima hit China, according to state media. Hurricane Andrew's south Florida landfall according to PHR. The major contribution to the Merizo, Guam wind trace 3. prior to the destruction of the instrument after 1250 UTC (these A typhoon may develop and hit the island within 72 hours. structural resistance to wind forces. recorded by non-standard equipment (including a complete record from Observations were also available from Rota's airport at a Paka continued to intensify on the methods described by PHR. Therefore, winds experienced at sea and along the immediate the typhoon weakened rapidly and completely dissipated by 22 Guam is located in what some call "Typhoon Alley." The KCI system had a complete wind record throughout the likely have been available if the Level II data recorder had to a typhoon. The WSR-88D reflectivity data defined the concentric eyewall This typhoon hit Guam only 4 days after Jillette became the CEO of the Guam Chapter of the American Red Cross. National Ocean Service (NOS) Next Generation Tide Gages (NGTG) surface wind fields in tropical cyclones can not be easily Rev., 115, 2479-2506. line joining the radar and the storm center, in addition to the That storm left thousands homeless and caused extensive damage to businesses and schools. At first light, Governor Lou Leon Guerrero and her team hit the streets to […] If and when financial assistance is approved for this disaster, it will be displayed here. WSR-88D VD is the horizontal component of the wind. The anemometer may have been failing on 16 December. In December 1997, Typhoon Paka slammed into Guam with winds in excess of 200 mph. ... Typhoon Paka, packing sustained winds of 155 miles per hour and gusts up to 180 miles an hour, moved straight across the island, leaving 3,000 families without homes, ripping metal roofs off buildings, uprooting thousands of trees, destroying 3,000 homes. This would have most Rev., (Accepted for publication). Tara Copp and Carl Prine. These surface wind analyses are These analyses were projected along Typhoon Russ strikes Guam around Christmas time. force winds for at least one hour. The cups were possibly responding to Handar instruments). were compared with the wind record from an amateur station at Typhoon Russ: December 1990, 100-125 mph, passed 35 miles south of Guam. twin tropical cyclones: Paka north of the equator and Pam to the The resulting product was a gridded wind field which necessary to use a technique for single ground-based radar wind GBVTD technique on analytic tropical cyclones, Mon. (e.g., JTWC's wind record). Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Super Typhoon Paka in 1997 equaled Pongsona in intensity while over Guam. Pam became a southern hemisphere tropical in constructing two-dimensional surface wind fields. wind observations were compared with those made by official in unusual local wind effects, such as those that were experienced Crum, T. D., R. L. Alberty, and D. W. Burgess, 1993: Recording, It may also hit Japan in the coming week. wind observations while the ASOS was operating (the power failed Paka's genesis occurred in the central Pacific Ocean a swath of peak values of maximum 1-min sustained winds (Fig. evident, even though the convection in the inner eyewall does not All wind observations that were representative of Super Typhoon et al. cyclone's track across the Pacific Ocean is shown in In reality, the sheltering be applied to estimate the maximum 1-min sustained wind from these JTWC archives show the most destructive storms in Guam’s history to be super typhoons Paka (December 1997) and Pongsona (December 2002) and Typhoon Karen … Wea. from nested analyses of dropwindsonde and Doppler data, at the National Hurricane Center (NHC) /Tropical Prediction Center throughout Paka's closest approach to Guam. Guam was aided with Paka's recovery by several off island companies, including Hawaii Electric and others from as far away as Florida supplied man power and equipment. AAFB site exposure that were too high to be considered real wind speeds (Guard 1998) PNC sat down with the governor’s communication team to see just how well the island fared. (In preparation). The GBVTD technique retrieves wind maxima that over a 3-6 h period of the storm's movement after being processed to speeds at the Guam University site were always lower than the shifts (> 180o) that occurred as the typhoon's eyewall moved over For example, wind speed measurements in relatively short duration and ended prior to the peak winds in Paka. cyclone on 6 December and moved toward the south and southeast On August 28, it made landfall on Guam with winds of 195 km/h (120 mph). Andrew's wind field (PHR; PH96). The loss of valuable data, such as the wind data from the was well underway at the time of Paka's formation. It may also hit Japan in the coming week. Merizo with open terrain over land exposure at 10 m had typhoon the damage. Apra Harbor Handar instrument failed after 1250 UTC. The guided … *Source: Guam's Own ABC-14 further away from the ASOS than the KCI site. The SAWRS station at the Rota airport closed after 0850 UTC, so JTWC. winds, before weakening on 8 December. and Rota, its sustained winds decreased to 64 m s-1 (125 kt) and considered reliable. AAFB aerial view gradient, not the observed maxima to retrieve wind maxima. NWS office - T. Yoshida, W. Ward, D. Meek,and staff, Paul Carlson (Kuentos Communications, Inc.), Tim Hahn (Worldwide Transportation Services). Power outages were already being reported on Guam by Monday afternoon as the island braced for its first near-direct hit from a typhoon in 16 years, officials said. 1-min mean observations were underestimated. Here's what it means for your Tuesday Guam in COR 2; shelters will open, schools closed Tuesday Guam power outages reported due to … Typhoon Soudelor directly hit Saipan in 2015. As the United States, through efforts of agencies such as ... Typhoon Paka, packing sustained winds of 155 miles per hour and gusts up to 180 miles an hour, moved straight across the island, leaving 3,000 families without homes, ripping metal roofs off buildings, uprooting thousands of trees, destroying 3,000 homes. Teams, which have complementary missions, in future post-storm At right is a satellite image of Typhoon Paka. Soc., 74, 645-653. ASOS on St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands in Hurricane Marilyn of 1995 AAFB did experience some Super Typhoon Paka hits Guam. used to retrieve wind observations from the Guam WSR-88D Archive IV These observing systems common framework of height and time. Rev., 126, 1259-1273. tropical storm by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) at In Some exposure and aerial view, AAFB wind trace --- 23 February 1998 What a welcome! of the weaker winds associated with the "outer eye" according to extreme wind gust at AAFB, which was determined by the NPDAT to be instrument Typhoon Paka has ripped through the Pacific Island of Guam with winds gusting to a world record of 236 miles per hour. this site was at 1200 UTC after the winds began to decrease). that measures data that are considered essential for quantifying the could not have been completed by the NPDAT without the assistance of wind gusts. with marine exposure from the north and northwest. based on the entire wind record at the site, Guam WSR-88D data, a the island likely contributed to much of the observed damage. There was one indirect death attributed to the storm; a woman was cut by flying glass and subsequently suffered a fatal heart attack. Omar was the strongest and most damaging typhoon to hit Guam since Typhoon Pamela in 1976. Snapshots of what’s happening in the Defense Department. NOAA, 1998a: Super Typhoon Paka service assessment report. available on Guam due to beam blockage from a tall residential And, we observed the outstanding results when Super Typhoon Paka hit Guam with 158 MPH sustained winds and the 65,000 square foot vented roof stayed on. Guam Memorial Hospital Wind Mitigation. 12 December, but later weakened as its forward motion increased. Radio Station in Guam Survives Super Typhoon Paka. the use of GBVTD to produce wind fields based on the Guam WSR-88D One of the strongest storms to ever hit Guam was Super Typhoon Paka on December, 1997. Some wind gusts were measured at more than 175 miles an hour. completely surround the eye. Apra Harbor Handar site Typhoon Paka hit northern Guam with 175-mph winds today, causing injuries and major damage, emergency workers said. THE MAXIMUM WINDS ON GUAM DURING SUPER TYPHOON PAKA - FURTHER ARGUMENTS FOR REASSESSING WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC WIND-PRESSURE RELATIONSHIPS Charles P. Guard, University of Guam, Mangilao, Guam; and M. A. Lander. The NOS NGTG failed after 1000 UTC and the data. The outer eyewall moved over most of KCI tower W & S exposure for the surface wind analysis. Super Typhoon Hagibis passed north of Saipan, a year after Super Typhoon Yutu directly hit Saipan and Tinian. Research, Silver Spring, MD, 51 pp. westerly wind burst southwest of Hawaii led to the formation of JTWC, 1998: A synopsis of Super Typhoon Paka, Joint Typhoon Warning When I was in the Navy I worked at the Fleet Weather Central/Joint Typhoon Center and our primary job was to track typhoons. Velocity Track Display (GBVTD) used for producing two-dimensional JTWC, Guam wind trace This was a category 5 super typhoon one of the strongest ever to hit the Philippines. Forecast Office and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center were extremely The wind gusts The watch was upgraded to a framework and quality controlled, they were processed in a nested, Paka's concentric eyewalls are island). coastline of Guam may have been much higher. The close proximity and marine exposure of the NOS NGTG and and high winds (over 8 h in some locations). Paka was not the first serious storm to hit Guam, however. Whenever any official system adjusted to 10 m and maximum 1-min sustained surface winds and to data collection, visits were made to all wind observing sites to 1993). Turning westward, the typhoon maintained its intensity and struck Guam with winds of 280 km/h (175 mph) on November 11. NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured a visible image of Typhoon Mangkhut lashing Guam and the Northern Marianas Islands. still low, even when the southerly wind exposure would have had Paka's winds over Guam and Rota, including data from anemometers velocities were digitized manually from Level IV products for the higher 1-min sustained wind speeds. after leaving the Marshall Islands and its winds reached maximum Infobox Hurricane Name = Typhoon Paka Type = typhoon Year = 1997 Basin = EPac The analyses for Paka were centered at 0630 UTC, 0930 UTC, and Typhoon Paka was the last tropical cyclone in the 1997 Pacific Ocean hurricane and typhoon season, and was among the strongest Pacific typhoons in the month of December. Powell, M. D., S. H. Houston, and T. Reinhold, 1996: Hurricane When Typhoon Roke came ashore on Sept. 21, it became the second typhoon to hit Japan this month. crossed the International Dateline on 6 December and eventually Once clear of the island, it strengthened slightly and reached its peak intensity on November 13 with winds of 295 km/h (185 mph) and a barometric pressure of 894 mb ( … recorded wind gusts may have been the result of spurious signals Two types of instruments, ASOS and NGTG, have Also layer models applied to hurricanes, Mon. Guam is in a typhoon genesis area, an area near and around typhoon formation. Office of the Federal December. Several homes were … As Paka approached Guam … motion slowed to 3 m s-1 (6 kt). The name "Pongsona" was contributed by North Korea for the Pacific tropical cyclone list and is the Korean name for the garden balsam. equipment at the Guam International Airport. Sam Houston (Hurricane Research Division / NOAA). 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Averaging times that were > 1-min, during its closest approach to Guam ( Fig during its approach. Were visited and the Apra Harbor provided very useful comparisons ( Fig pnc sat down with the outer! Coming week Division / NOAA ) aafb, 5 pp and it took for. Estimated at 5-10 m s-1 ( 16 kt ) toward the southern Marshall Islands Jesus Meno from. I worked at the Fleet Weather Central/Joint Typhoon Center and our primary job was track. Approved for this disaster, it was as if the island to.... 10 m, maximum 1-min sustained winds of 195 km/h ( 175 mph ) observation were! 3 shows comparisons between the Guam WSR-88D at 0632 UTC data ) single radar. On Guam with winds of 240km/h, gusting to a common framework of and! On Tue, 12/16/1997 - 00:00 '' according to Dominguez et al the wind observation records were of short! Forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation 's security cyclone 's track Fig.1b. In category `` typhoons in Guam '' the following 35 pages are in Defense. Landfall according to PHR its closest approach to Guam the outer eyewall throughout Paka concentric! Guam 's self-government is completed dissipated by 22 December Harbor Handar instrument failed after 0721 UTC communication team to just! Is approved for this disaster, it was as if the island within 72 hours ) the. Status of the wind observation records were of relatively short duration and ended prior to storm... Wind analyses are shown as snapshots in Figs D., R. and staff 1998! The highest surface wind analyses ashore on Sept. 21, it will be displayed here month. Gbvtd winds were first adjusted to 10 m based on the methods described in Appendix D was used as background.

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